Literature Cited

Required elements

Periodical article

name(s) of author(s). year of publication. title of article. journal name and volume number: page numbers.


name(s) of author(s). year of publication. title of book. name and city of the publisher. number of pages in the entire book

Web site

name(s) of author(s). year of publication. title. Uniform Resource Locator (URL, or web address) and date accessed.

Chapter in a book

name(s) of author(s) of chapter. year of publication. chapter title. In: name(s) of editor(s) of book (ed.). name and city of the publisher, page numbers of the chapter.


References should be listed in the hanging indent style. The first line is left-justified, while those that follow are indented.

Names: use last name first for a sole author or the first of joint authors. The co-authors' names should be in a normal order. Use initials rather than given names. If author is not listed, use Anonymous, both in citation and reference listing.
Year: Title: capitalize only the first word and proper nouns. Other than that, use the wording and spelling as it appears. Do not underline titles or use quotation marks.

Name of periodical: Write out the whole title, without abbreviations.

Volume and pages: Use arabic numerals for both. Volume number follows the journal name, and is followed by a colon. The inclusive pages of the article follow the colon.


Eskin, A. 1972. Phase shifting a circadian rhythm in the eye of
Aplysia by high potassium pulses. Journal of Comparative
Physiology 80:353-356.

Noirot, C. 1992. Sexual castes and reproductive strategies in termites.
In: Engels, W. (ed.) Social insects. Springer, Berlin, pp 5-35.

Powles, M.A., P. A. Janssens, and D. Gilmour. 1972. Urea
formation in the green vegetable bug Nezara viridula. Journal
of Insect Physiology 18:2343-2358.

Walker, T.J. and T.E. Moore. 2007. Singing insects of North America. Accessed 4/17/2007.

Wilson, J.A. 1972. Principles of animal physiology. The
Macmillan Company, New York. 842 pp.